m b z ¨ = κ z k - z - κ ' z - F, (6) m k z ¨ k = κz - z k-τ z˙ k, where κ and κ ' are the effective stiffness coefficients of the springs that connect the body with the cone and the body with the base, respectively. The term τ z ˙ k is an approximate model of crushing, and is destined for further discussion.

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